Survival, growth, and behavior of the loliginid squids Loligo plei, Loligo pealei, and Lolliguncula brevis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in closed sea water systems

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:1983
Authors:R. T. Hanlon, Hixon, R. F., Hulet, W. H.
Journal:Biological BulletinBiological Bulletin
Keywords:aggression, behavior, Cephalopod, culture, feeding, fishing methods, food, growth, light attraction, Loligo, Loligo pealei, Loligo plei, Lolliguncula, maintenance, mating, Mollusca, rearing, skin, squid, transport

Over 1200 squids were captured by night lighting, trawling, or seining in the northern Gulf of Mexico for laboratory maintenance. Two types of recirculating sea water systems were designed and evaluated: a 2 m circular tank (1500 liter capacity) and a 10 m long raceway (10,000 liters). Mean laboratory survival was: Loligo plei (12 to 252 mm mantle length, ML) 11 days, maximum 84 days; Loligo pealei (109 to 285 mm ML) 28 days, maximum 71 days; Lolliguncula brevis (27 to 99 mm ML) 19 days, maximum 125 days. Smaller squids showed significantly poorer survival than larger ones. All squids fed well on a variety of live estuarine fishes and shrimps. Growth rates depended upon stage of maturity. The highest rates were Loligo plei 59 mm/month (23.8 g/mo), Loligo pealei 77 mm/mo (67.3 g/mo), and Lolliguncula brevis 31 mm/mo (17.2 g/mo). General aspects of behavior and body patterning were species-specific and were useful indices of the squids' condition. Key factors for lab- oratory survival were (1) prevention of skin damage, (2) tank systems with sufficiently large horizontal dimensions, (3) high quality water, (4) ample food supply, (5) no crowding, (6) maintaining squids of similar size to reduce aggression and cannibalism, ,and (7) segregating sexes to reduce aggression associated with courtship, mating, and egg laying.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith